@Greenman’s answer was correct but you need to adjust preArgs in order to send the appropriate numbers of midi arguments. For example, setting preArgs to 1 (ie channel 1) would let you define each item in values as a [note_number, velocity] pair.
Reading the link you gave me (One push button sends a sequence of values?), I can say that I find it useful for my new problem. See, through the widget itself or by using a script I managed to make a dropdown/switch to send different MIDI note messages (Value 1 = note 1; Value 2 = note 2, etc). Now, I need to send multiple MIDI messages in a given order and with a little bit of delay between them. I hope to get an understanding about how custom modules work.
This syntax is not available anymore. In the new O-S-C version (v1 as opposed to v0), things are done a bit differently.
To answer your question: In the old syntax you needed to type "false" so that – when executed – the send() function would be prevented from ignoring the target property (located in the Inspector) of the widget. As you may know, the target can be either a MIDI address (midi:midiPort) or an OSC address (ip:port).
The documentation for O-S-C v0 says that the send() function ignores the script's targets and the server's defaults (launcher's defaults) unless target (the target property in the Inspector) is false.
Thus, send(false, "/note", 1, 126, 127) will use the target specified in the target property (so you were close when you assumed that it's the midi port's name).
If you wanted to use a different target, you had to specify one like this: send("midi:midiPort", "/note", 1, 126, 127)
You can read more about scripting in O-S-C v0 here.